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APA Sample Paper, Three-Level Heading Sample, Reference Page Sample

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Helpful Tips for References in APA Style

  • Reference List or Bibliography? APA use a refererence list. The reference list provides information necessary to identify and retrieve sources sed by the author. Authors must include only sources that are cited in the paper. In contrast, a bibliography cites all works reviewed and/or cited.
  • All references are double spaced and use a hanging indent (all lines after the first line of each entry in is indented one-half inch from the left margin). For directions in using Word’s automatic hanging indent feature visit: http://www.drgwen.com/materials/apa/30.htm
  • Only the first and middle initial of author name(s) are used (e.g. Smith, J.A.).
  • Multiple authors are separated by an ampersand (&) not the word 'and’.
  • The publication date follows the author name(s) and is contained in parentheses, e.g. Smith, J.A. (2004).
  • Capitalize ONLY the first word of the title of a book or article, the subtitle, and proper nouns. Exception: Capitalize every important word in journal titles.
  • Italicize titles of books and journals and the volume number of journals. DO NOT italicize or put quotation marks around the title of a book chapter or article in a journal.
  • If the book has a subtitle, put a colon between the main title and the subtitle. Subtitles must be included in the reference.
  • Give the location (city and state) where the publisher is located for books, reports, and other nonperiodical publications. Use the official two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviations. For cities outside the United States, spell out the country names.
  • Include the digital object identifier (DOI) assigned to a source even if the print is available. DOIs may be searched using the registration agency http://CrossRef.org which will help you locate any online supplemental archives associated with the article.
  • If you retrieved a journal article electronically and there is no DOI, give the URL of the journal home page. If the journal is available in print, there is no need to include the URL.
  • Usually, database information is not included as part of the reference. However, if a document is difficult to locate through its primary publishing channels, give the home page URL for the online service. See pp. 189-192.
  • Do not end the reference with a period if you include the URL.